The North Atlantic Road, Norway. (Wikimedia Commons)

The North Atlantic Road, Norway. (Wikimedia Commons)

GUEST COLUMN: B.C. should learn from Norway’s example

B.C. salmon farming pioneer returns from European tour

Special to Black Press, by James Anderson, a B.C. public servant for 30 years and director of aquaculture and commercial fisheries for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fish and Food from 1981 to 1998. He lives in Saanich.

I recently returned from Norway, and four recent news items relate to what I observed. Three were local; the protest arising from a fish farm escape in Washington state, the decline of wild salmon stocks due to the “North Pacific blob,” and news of a new ferry vessel for North Coast. The other was an international story concerning prevalence of sea lice.

My 1,400-km coastal ferry trip from the Russian border south to Bergen was via a passenger-and-car ferry service to every community, whether 500 or 50,000 residents. Most of those communities are serviced by new airports, highways, railways and dozen of tunnels, bridges and 24-hour ferry connections.

The North Atlantic Road is miracle of highway engineering. The extent of public investment to provide access is a remarkable contrast with our almost uninhabited coast, except for Bella Bella, Bella Coola, a declining Prince Rupert and our minimalist mid-coast ferry service.

Obviously much of this is benefits from offshore oil royalties and Norway’s enormous “sovereign fund,” but the long-term vision of public officials to invest in services to offset migration to Oslo is remarkable. Trondheim, near the Arctic Circle, has a large and world-renowned university.

Today Norway conquers world economies, not by Viking raids but through diversifying their economy by adapting technology built on their maritime traditions, whether shipping, fisheries, offshore oil or aquaculture. At the same time they provide strong support for 21st-century measures including wind energy and environmental protection laws. They have done a good balancing act of marine resource development while achieving the highest standard of living in the world.

Pertinent to the news items, there has been no commercial harvest of North Atlantic salmon for several decades; those stocks are reserved for the “pay-to-fish” recreational sector common to Norway, Ireland, Scotland and Iceland. Norway back in the 1970s made a dramatic commitment to use modern science, and instead of chasing salmon they would raise them in ocean pens.

Today more than 1,500 salmon farms generate export value of more than $16 billion. Subsequently Scotland, Ireland, Chile and even New Brunswick and B.C. joined this shift from capture fisheries, adapting the fundamentals of terrestrial food production to marine environments. They provide 14 million salmon meals daily. So much for critics who won’t eat that junk!

The UN warns us of serious overfishing by capture fishery fleets, and numerous fish stocks are in danger. If the pending increase in world population to nine billion is to be fed, much of the protein must come from aquaculture. Worldwide aquaculture of all species in both marine and freshwater has increased from 35 to 60 per cent.

In B.C., wild salmon annual harvests declined in wholesale value from $250 million to less than $50 million. Our 110 salmon farms now produce $600 million, mainly for export. Norwegian companies brought their technology and made investments in B.C. to provide a future for our marine sector. To chase them away is sheer folly.

Critics suggest there is direct link between wild stock decline and emergence of fish farms, a claim which cannot be substantiated. A recent commentary in a Victoria newspaper described the negative effects of “North Pacific blob” and warmer temperatures that has significantly reduced ocean survival of salmon stocks, not just for B.C. but also for the U.S., Japan and Russia.

Understand that it took four millennia for farmers to learn how to grow crops and husband animals and they still have issues with disease and pests. Fish farmers have only been doing so for four decades so they have steep learning curve.

While mistakes have been made and escapes will occur much has been learned in past, mortality and waste has been reduced and feed conversion rates have been improved. The answer is not to ban fish farms but use knowledge to improve husbandry. We don’t eliminate schools because children have whooping cough.

Compare feed conversion rates of 1.15 for farmed salmon to pigs and cattle; and even 1.79 for chickens. Protein retention is also higher, as is edible yield. Those concerned about saving our planet should get protein from farmed salmon instead of eating most land animals.

Salmon farming has saved the economy of most North Atlantic communities. Based what has been learned from four decades of trial and error, within 10 years an ongoing scientific breakthrough will revolutionize seafood production with commercial scale farming of cod and halibut.

As a look at my home province, I see a government that ignores the North Coast, an urban populace that opposes resource development and critics who raise spurious and unfounded shibboleths regarding farmed salmon. If we continue with these policies and attitudes, the world economy will pass us by and our coastal communities will see further declines. We can and should learn from others.

BC legislatureSalmon farming

Just Posted

FILE – Perry Bellegarde, National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations, takes part in an event on Parliament Hill in Ottawa on Tuesday, July 7, 2020. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean Kilpatrick
Indigenous Peoples Day must be a ‘call to action’, says Assembly of First Nations chief

Discovery of children at Kamloops residential school site must lead to change, Perry Bellegarde says

The Binche Fishing Derby at Stuart Lake is fast approaching. (Binche Fishing Derby Facebook photo)
Binche shares excitement for upcoming fishing derby

“It’s more than just fishing,” says Dave Birdi

A person receives a COVID-19 vaccine at a vaccination clinic run by Vancouver Coastal Health, in Richmond, B.C., Saturday, April 10, 2021. (THE CANADIAN PRESS/Jonathan Hayward)
Local youth vaccination clinics underway

Pfizer vaccine will be used

Priya Sharma. (Submitted)
Column: Why ultimatums don’t work

By Priya Sharma It is a common misconception that people can choose… Continue reading

The border crossing into the United States is seen during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lacolle, Que. on February 12, 2021. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Paul Chiasson
VIDEO: Border quarantine to soon lift for fully vaccinated Canadians

Eligible travellers must still take multiple COVID-19 tests

Golden Ears Mountains, captured in May 2021. (Black Press Media files)
2nd year of day passes required for entry into 5 provincial parks launches in B.C.

Pilot program seeks to protect the environment by addressing visitor surges amid the COVID-19 pandemic

Lincoln Mckoen. (YouTube)
Anglican bishop of the central Interior resigns over sexual misconduct allegations

Lincoln Mckoen was elected as a bishop of the Territory of the People region last year

The former Kamloops Indian Residential School on the Tk’emlups te Secwépemc reserve. (Allen Douglas/Kamloops This Week)
Tk’emlups preparing for archaeological work at B.C. residential school site where remains found

The 215 graves are, to the band’s knowledge, undocumented deaths for which it is still collecting records

Fans watch the warm-up before Game 6 between the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Montreal Canadiens in NHL playoff hockey action Saturday, May 29, 2021 in Montreal. Quebec’s easing of COVID-19 restrictions will allow 2,500 fans to attend the game for the first time in fourteen months. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Ryan Remiorz
Two-thirds of Canadians say governments shouldn’t lift all COVID-19 restrictions

Poll reports Canadians who gained pandemic weight say they have gained 16 pounds on average

Paul Bernardo is shown in this courtroom sketch during Ontario court proceedings via video link in Napanee, Ont., on October 5, 2018. Teen killer and serial rapist Paul Bernardo is set for a parole hearing today. The designated dangerous offender, has been eligible for full parole for more than three years. Bernardo’s horrific crimes in the 1980s and early 1990s include for kidnapping, torturing and killing Kristen French and Leslie Mahaffy near St. Catharines, Ont. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Greg Banning
Killer rapist Paul Bernardo faces parole hearing today; victim families opposed

Designated dangerous offender has been eligible for full parole for more than three years.

People look over the damage after a tornado touched down in Mascouche, Que., north of Montreal, Monday, June 21, 2021. Dozens of homes were damaged and one death has been confirmed. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Ryan Remiorz
One dead and extensive damage as tornado hits Mascouche, Que., north of Montreal

Damage reported in several parts of the city, and emergency teams dispatched to sectors hardest hit

Chilliwack secondary school’s principal is apologizing after a quote equating graduation with the end of slavery in the U.S. was included in the 2020-2021 yearbook. (Screenshot from submitted SnapChat)
B.C. student’s yearbook quote equates grad to end of slavery; principal cites editing error

Black former student ‘disgusted’ as CSS principal apologizes for what is called an editing error

Skeena MLA Ellis Ross. (Photo by Peter Versteege)
BC Liberal leadership candidate condemns ‘senseless violence’ of Okanagan church fires

Skeena MLA Ellis Ross says reconciliation isn’t about revenge for past tragedies

Most Read